Essays On Computer In Wikipedia

Computer addiction can be described as the excessive or compulsive use of the computer which persists despite serious negative consequences for personal, social, or occupational function.[1] Another clear conceptualization is made by Block, who stated that "Conceptually, the diagnosis is a compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder that involves online and/or offline computer usage and consists of at least three subtypes: excessive gaming, sexual preoccupations, and e-mail/text messaging".[2] While it was expected that this new type of addiction would find a place under the compulsive disorders in the DSM-5, the current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, it is still counted as an unofficial disorder.[3] The concept of computer addiction is broadly divided into two types, namely offline computer addiction and online computer addiction. The term offline computer addiction is normally used when speaking about excessive gaming behavior, which can be practiced both offline and online.[4] Online computer addiction, also known as Internet addiction, gets more attention in general from scientific research than offline computer addiction, mainly because most cases of computer addiction are related to the excessive use of the Internet.[1]

Although addiction is usually used to describe dependence on substances, addiction can also be used to describe pathological Internet use. Experts on Internet addiction have described this syndrome as an individual being intensely working on the Internet, prolonged use of the Internet, uncontrollable use of the Internet, unable to use the Internet with efficient time, not being interested in the outside world, not spending time with people from the outside world, and an increase in their loneliness and dejection.[5] However, simply working long hours on the computer does not necessarily mean someone is addicted.[6]

Symptoms[edit]

  • Being drawn by the computer as soon as one wakes up and before one goes to bed.
  • Replacing old hobbies with excessive use of the computer and using the computer as one's primary source of entertainment and procrastination
  • Lacking physical exercise and/or outdoor exposure because of constant use of the computer, which could contribute to many health problems such as obesity

Effects[edit]

Excessive computer use may result in, or occur with:

Causes[edit]

Kimberly Young[7] indicates that previous research links internet/computer addiction with existing mental health issues, most notably depression. She states that computer addiction has significant effects socially such as low self-esteem, psychologically and occupationally which led many subjects to academic failure.

According to a Korean study on internet/computer addiction, pathological use of the internet results in negative life impacts such as job loss, marriage breakdown, financial debt, and academic failure. 70% of internet users in Korea are reported to play online games, 18% of which are diagnosed as game addicts which relates to internet/computer addiction. The authors of the article conducted a study using Kimberly Young's questionnaire. The study showed that the majority of those who met the requirements of internet/computer addiction suffered from interpersonal difficulties and stress and that those addicted to online games specifically responded that they hoped to avoid reality.[8]

Types[edit]

Computers nowadays rely almost entirely on the internet and thus relevant research articles relating to internet addiction may also be relevant to computer addiction.

  • Social media addiction: Data suggest that participants use social media to fulfill their social needs, but are typically dissatisfied.[12]  Lonely individuals are drawn to the Internet for emotional support. This could interfere with "real life socializing" by reducing face-to-face relationships.[13] Some of these views are summed up in an Atlantic article by Stephen Marche entitled Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?, in which the author argues that social media provides more breadth, but not the depth of relationships that humans require and that users begin to find it difficult to distinguish between the meaningful relationships which we foster in the real world, and the numerous casual relationships that are formed through social media.[14]

Diagnostic Test[edit]

A lot of studies and surveys are being conducted to measure the extent of this type of addiction. Dr.Kimberly S. Young has created s questionnaire based on other disorders to assess the level of addiction. It is called the Internet Addict Diagnostic Questionnaire or IADQ. Answering positively to five out of the eight questions may be indicative of an online addiction.

Origin of the term and history[edit]

Observations about the addictiveness of computers and more specifically computer games date back at least to the mid 1970s. Addiction and addictive behavior was common among the users of the PLATO system at the University of Illinois.[15] British e-learning academic Nicholas Rushby suggested in his 1979 book, An Introduction to Educational Computing, that people can be addicted to computers and suffer withdrawal symptoms. The term was also used by M. Shotton in 1989 in her book Computer Addiction. However, Shotton concludes that the 'addicts' are not truly addicted. Dependency on computers, she argues, is better understood as a challenging and exiting pastime that can also lead to a professional career in the field. Computers do not turn gregarious, extroverted people into recluses; instead they offer introverts a source of inspiration, excitement and intellectual stimulation. Shotton's work seriously questions the legitimacy of the claim that computers cause addiction.

The term became more widespread with the explosive growth of the Internet, as well the availability of the personal computer.[16] Computers and the Internet both started to take shape as a personal and comfortable medium which could be used by anyone who wanted to make use of it. With that explosive growth of individuals making use of PCs and the Internet, the question started to arise whether or not misuse or excessive use of these new technologies could be possible as well. It was hypothesized that, like any technology aimed specifically at human consumption and use, that abuse could have severe consequences for the individual in the short term and for the society in the long term.[17] In the late nineties people who made use of PCs and the internet where already referred to the term webaholics or cyberholics. Pratarelli et al. suggested at that point already to label "a cluster of behaviors potentially causing problems" as computer or Internet addiction.[16]

There are other examples of computer overuse that date back to the earliest computer games. Press reports have furthermore noted that some Finnish Defence Forcesconscripts were not mature enough to meet the demands of military life, and were required to interrupt or postpone military service for a year. One reported source of the lack of needed social skills is overuse of computer games or the Internet. Forbes termed this overuse "Web fixations", and stated that they were responsible for 12 such interruptions or deferrals over the 5 years from 2000–2005.[dead link][18][19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abPies, R (2009). "Should DSM-V Designate "Internet Addiction" a Mental Disorder?". Psychiatry. 6 (2): 31–37. PMC 2719452. PMID 19724746. 
  2. ^Block, J. J. (1 March 2008). "Issues for DSM-V: Internet Addiction". American Journal of Psychiatry. 165 (3): 306–7. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07101556. PMID 18316427. 
  3. ^Răşcanu, Ruxandra; Marineanu, Corina; Marineanu, Vasile; Sumedrea, Cristian Mihai; Chitu, Alexandru (May 2013). "Teenagers and their Addiction to Computer". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 78: 225–229. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.04.284. 
  4. ^Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen (26 February 2009). "Development and Validation of a Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents". Media Psychology. 12 (1): 77–95. doi:10.1080/15213260802669458. 
  5. ^Yellowlees, Peter; Marks (May 2007). "Problematic Internet use or Internet addiction?". ScienceDirect. 23 (3): 1447–1453. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2005.05.004. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  6. ^"Computer Addiction". ADDICTIONS.COM. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  7. ^Young, Kimberly S.; Rogers, Robert C. (1998). "The Relationship Between Depression and Internet Addiction". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 1: 25. doi:10.1089/cpb.1998.1.25. 
  8. ^Whang, Leo Sang-Min; Lee, Sujin; Chang, Geunyoung (2003). "Internet Over-Users' Psychological Profiles: A Behavior Sampling Analysis on Internet Addiction". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 6 (2): 143. doi:10.1089/109493103321640338. 
  9. ^"Computer Game Addiction". Berkeley Parents Network. Retrieved 25 June 2007. 
  10. ^Hauge, Marney R. and James Robert 'Paynee' (April 2003). "Video game addiction among adolescents: Associations with academic performance and aggression"(PDF). Retrieved 25 June 2007.  
  11. ^Tanner, Lindsey (22 June 2007). "Is video-game addiction a mental disorder?". Associated Press. Retrieved 2009-05-09. 
  12. ^Wang, Z.; Tchernev, J. M.; Solloway, T. (2012). "A dynamic longitudinal examination of social media use, needs, and gratifications among college students". Computers in Human Behavior. 28 (5): 1829–1839. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.05.001. 
  13. ^Morahan-Martin, J.; Schumacher, P. (2003). "Loneliness and social uses of the internet". Computers in Human Behavior. 19 (6): 659–671. doi:10.1016/S0747-5632(03)00040-2. 
  14. ^Marche, Stephen (2012). "Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 12, 2013. 
  15. ^Brian Dear, Chapter 21 -- Coming of Age, The Friendly Orange Glow, Pantheon Books, New York, 2017; see pages 381-387 for a discussion of addiction on PLATO, page 382 quotes a 1975 article from The Daily Illini that discusses the subject.
  16. ^ abPratarelli, Marc E.; Browne, Blaine L.; Johnson, Kimberly (June 1999). "The bits and bytes of computer/internet addiction: A factor analytic approach". Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers. 31 (2): 305–314. doi:10.3758/BF03207725. 
  17. ^Robert H. Anderson, Center for Information Revolution Analyses (1995). Universal access to e-mail : feasibility and societal implications. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand. ISBN 9780833023315. 
  18. ^"WHO study shows Finnish teenage boys as heavy computer users". Helsingin Sanomat. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  19. ^Lea Goldman (2005-09-05). "This Is Your Brain on Clicks". Forbes. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 

Works cited

  • Dawn Heron. "Time To Log Off: New Diagnostic Criteria For Problematic Internet Use", University of Florida, Gainesville, published in Current Psychology, April 2003 [1] (Identifies incessant posting in chat rooms as a form of emotional disorder).
  • Orzack, Maressa H. Dr. (1998). "Computer Addiction: What Is It?" Psychiatric TimesXV(8).
  • Shotton, MA (1989), Computer Addiction? A study of computer dependency. New York: Taylor & Francis.
  • Cromie, William J. Computer Addiction Is Coming On-line. HPAC - Harvard Public Affairs & Communications. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. [2] (Explains symptoms and other various attributes of the new disease).
  • UTD Counseling Center: Self-Help:Computer Addiction. Home Page - The University of Texas at Dallas. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. [3].
  • Addictions.com. (n.d.). Computer Addiction. Retrieved December 5, 2013, from http://www.addictions.com/computer/

"WP:ESSAY" redirects here. For the Wikipedia policy on personal essays as articles, see WP:NOTESSAY. For the wikiproject on Wikipedia essays, see WP:WikiProject Essays.

Essays, as used by Wikipedia editors, typically contain advice or opinions of one or more Wikipedia contributors. The purpose of an essay is to aid or comment on the encyclopedia but not on any unrelated causes. Essays have no official status, and do not speak for the Wikipedia community as they may be created and edited without overall community oversight. Following the instructions or advice given in an essay is optional. There are currently about 2,000 essays on a wide range of Wikipedia-related topics.

About essays

Although essays are not policies or guidelines, many are worthy of consideration. Policies and guidelines cannot cover all circumstances, consequently many essays serve as interpretations or commentary of perceived community norms for specific topics and situations. The value of an essay should be understood in context, using common sense and discretion. Essays can be written by anyone and can be long monologues or short theses, serious or funny. Essays may represent widespread norms or minority viewpoints. An essay, as well as being useful, can potentially be a divisive means of espousing a point of view. Although an essay should not be used to create an alternative rule set, the Wikipedia community has historically tolerated a wide range of Wikipedia related subjects and viewpoints on user pages.

The difference between policies, guidelines, and some essays on Wikipedia may be obscure. Essays vary in popularity and how much they are followed and referred to. Editors should defer to official policies or guidelines when essays, information pages or template documentation pages are inconsistent with established community standards and principles.

Avoid "quoting" essays as though they are policy—including this "explanatory supplement page". Essays, information pages and template documentation pages can be written without much—if any—debate, as opposed to Wikipedia policies that have been thoroughly vetted by the community (see WP:Local consensus for details). In Wikipedia discussions, editors may refer to essays provided that they do not hold them out as general consensus or policy. Proposals for new guidelines and policies require discussion and a high level of consensus from the entire community for promotion. See Wikipedia:How to contribute to Wikipedia guidance and Wikipedia:Policy writing is hard for more information.

Essays are located in the Wikipedia namespace (e.g., Wikipedia:Reasonability rule) and in User namespaces (e.g., User:Tony1/Beginners' guide to the Manual of Style). The Help namespace contains pages which provide factual (usually technical) information on using Wikipedia and its software (see below). The {{Essay}}-family templates (with several variants like {{Notability essay}} and {{WikiProject advice}}), versus the {{Guideline}} (and variants, like {{MoS guideline}}) and {{Policy}} templates give an indication of a page's status within the community. Some essays at one time were proposed policies or guidelines, but they could not gain consensus overall; as indicated by the template {{Failed proposal}}. Other essays that at one time had consensus, but are no longer relevant, are tagged with the template {{Historical}}. Current essay policy nominations are indicated by the banner {{Proposed}}. See Wikipedia:Template messages/Wikipedia namespace for a listing of namespace banners.

Types of essays

Wikipedia essays

Further information: WP:ESSAYPAGES

Essays in the Wikipedia namespace – which are never to be put in the main (encyclopedia article) namespace – typically address some aspect of working in Wikipedia. They have not been formally adopted as guidelines or policies by the community at large, but typically edited by the community. Some are widely accepted as part of the Wikipedia gestalt, and have a significant degree of influence during discussions (like "guideline supplements" WP:Tendentious editing, WP:Bold, revert, discuss cycle, and WP:Arguments to avoid in deletion discussions). Many essays, however, are obscure, single-author pieces. Essays may be moved into userspace as user essays (see below), or even deleted, if they are found to be problematic.[1] Occasionally, even longstanding, community-edited essays may be removed or radically revised if community norms shift.[2]

See also: Category:Wikipedia essays

User essays

Further information: Wikipedia:User pages

According to Wikipedia policy, "Essays that the author does not want others to edit, or that are found to contradict widespread consensus, belong in the user namespace." These are similar to essays placed in the Wikipedia namespace; however, they are often authored/edited by only one person, and may represent a strictly personal viewpoint about Wikipedia or its processes (e.g., User:Jehochman/Responding to rudeness). Some of them are widely respected by other editors, and even occasionally have an effect on policy (e.g., the WP:General notability guideline originated in a user essay). Writings that contradict policy are somewhat tolerated within the User namespace. The author of a personal essay located in his or her user space has the prerogative to revert any changes made to it by any other user, within reason. Polemics against particular people, or against Wikipedia itself, are generally just deleted, as unconstructive or disruptive.

See also: Category:User essays

WikiProject advice pages

Further information: WP:PROPAGES

WikiProjects are groups of editors who like working together. Advice pages written by these groups are formally considered the same as pages written by anyone else, that is, they are essays unless and until they have been formally adopted as community-wide guidelines or policies. WikiProjects are encouraged to write essays explaining how the community's policies and guidelines should be applied to their areas of interest and expertise (e.g., Wikipedia:WikiProject Bibliographies#Recommended structure).

See also: Category:WikiProjects

Historical essays

The Wikimedia Foundation's Meta-wiki was envisioned as the original place for editors to comment on and discuss Wikipedia, although the "Wikipedia" project space has since taken over most of that role. Many historical essays can still be found at Meta.Wikimedia.org.

See also: Meta:Category:Essays

Wikipedia how to and information pages

Further information: Wikipedia:Information pages

Wikipedia's how-to and information pages are typically edited by the community. They provide technical and factual information or supplement guidelines and policies in greater detail. Where "essay pages" offer advice or opinions through viewpoints, information pages are intended to supplement current community norms in an impartial way (e.g., Wikipedia:Administration).

See also: Category:Wikipedia information pages and Category:Wikipedia how-to

Creation and modification of essays

Main page: Wikipedia:Wikipedia essays

See also: Wikipedia:Project namespace § Creating new project pages

Further information: Wikipedia:Project namespace § Deletion of project pages

Before creating an essay, it is a good idea to check if similar essays already exist. Although there is no guideline or policy that explicitly prohibits it, writing redundant essays is discouraged. Avoid creating essays just to prove a point or game the system. Essays that violate one or more Wikipedia policies, such as spam, personal attacks, copyright violations, or what Wikipedia is not tend to get deleted or transferred to user space.

You do not have to be the one who originally created an essay in order to improve it. If an essay already exists, you can add to, remove from, or modify it as you wish, provided that you use good judgment. However, essays placed in the User: namespace are often—though not always—meant to represent the viewpoint of one user only. You should not normally edit someone else's user essay without permission. To be on the safe side, any edits not covered by REFACTOR and MINOR should not be made without agreement with the author. More radical edits should be discussed with them on the talk page. If the original author is no longer active or available, then a consensus should be sought from the other editors who have edited the essay. Another option is to just write a different essay.

Finding essays

Wikipedia:Essay directory - lists about 800 essays to allow searching for key words or terms with your browser. The gist of user written essays can be found at Wikipedia:Essays in a nutshell. Essays can also be navigated via categories, the navigation template (as seen below), or Special:Search (as seen below; include the words "Wikipedia essays" with your other search-words).

Notes

  1. ^Miscellany for deletion (WP:MFD) is one process that can be used by Wikipedians to decide what should be done with problematic pages in the namespaces which aren't covered by other specialized deletion discussion areas. Items sent here are usually discussed for seven days; then they are either deleted by an administrator or kept (sometimes with modifications, which may include moving or merging), based on community consensus as evident from the discussion, consistent with policy, and with careful judgment of the rough consensus if required. Pages which are not specifically being posted for deletion can also be moved through the requested moves (WP:RM) process.
  2. ^Two examples are "WP:Don't be a dick" and "WP:Don't feed the divas", replaced by the heavily revised WP:Don't be a jerk and WP:Don't be high-maintenance, respectively, after too many incivility complaints. Conversely, an attempt to replace the rather stern WP:Give 'em enough rope with a much more mild-toned "WP:Let the tiger show its stripes" was rejected by consensus, and the latter eventually deleted as redundant. Some essays, like WP:Advice for hotheads, are intentionally written with such history in mind, and are worded to not offend and to advise against using them in attempts to offend.

0 thoughts on “Essays On Computer In Wikipedia

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *